Oldest manuscripts reveal Ottoman tolerance on Greek monastery

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BY ASSOCIATED PRESS

 MOUNT ATHOS, GREECE OCT 21, 2022 – DAILY SABAH

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A view of Pantokrator Monastery from above in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)

A view of Pantokrator Monastery from above in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)

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Achurch bell sounds, the staccato thudding of mallet on plank summons monks to afternoon prayers, deep voices are raised in communal chant. And high in the great tower of Pantokrator Monastery, a metal library door swings open.

There, deep inside the medieval fortified monastery in the Mount Athos monastic Orthodox Christian community, researchers are for the first time tapping a virtually unknown treasure – thousands of Ottoman-era manuscripts that include the oldest of their kind in the world.

The libraries of the self-governed community, established more than 1,000 years ago on northern Greece’s Athos peninsula, are a repository of rare, centuries-old works in several languages including Greek, Russian and Romanian.

A view of Pantokrator Monastery from above in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)
Father Theophilos, a Pantokrator monk, holds a manuscript at the library of Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)

Many have been extensively studied, but not the Ottoman Turkish documents, products of a bureaucracy that ruled northern Greece from the late 14th century – well before the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, fell to the Ottomans in 1453 – until the early 20th when the area became Greek again.

Byzantine scholar Jannis Niehoff-Panagiotidis says it’s impossible to understand Mount Athos’ economy and society under Ottoman rule without consulting these documents, which regulated the monks’ dealings with secular authorities.

“Ottoman was the official language of state,” he told The Associated Press (AP) from the library of the Pantokrator Monastery, one of 20 on the heavily wooded peninsula.

Niehoff-Panagiotidis, a professor at the Free University of Berlin, said the oldest of the roughly 25,000 Ottoman works found in the monastic libraries dates to 1374, or 1371. That’s older than any known in the world, he said, adding that in Istanbul, as the Ottomans renamed Constantinople when they made the city their own capital, the oldest archives only go back to the late 15th century.

Father Theofilos reads a manuscript as Anastasios Nikopoulos looks on at the library of Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)
Father Theofilos, a Pantokrator monk, shows a manuscript at the library of Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)
The tower with the library stands on the left, as visitors arrive at the Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)
Father Theophilos (L), Byzantine scholar Yiannis Niehoff-Panagiotidis (C), and Anastassios Nikopoulos, check a manuscript at the library of Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)

“The first documents that shed light (on the first period of Ottoman history) are saved here, on Mount Athos,” he said, seated at a table piled with documents and books. Others, the more rare ones, are stored in large wooden drawers.

These include highly ornate Sultans’ firmans – or decrees – deeds of ownership and court decisions.

“The overwhelming majority are legal documents,” said Anastasios Nikopoulos, a jurist and scientific collaborator of the Free University of Berlin who’s been working with Niehoff-Panagiotidis on the project for the past few months.

And the manuscripts tell a story at odds with the traditional understanding in Greece of Ottoman depredations in the newly-conquered areas, through the confiscation of the Mount Athos monasteries’ rich real estate holdings. Instead, the new rulers took the community under their wing, preserved its autonomy and protected it from external interference.

Father Theofilos (L), Byzantine scholar Yiannis Niehoff-Panagiotidis (C), and Anastasios Nikopoulos, speak to each other at the library of Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)
Byzantine scholar Yiannis Niehoff-Panagiotidis reads a manuscript at the library of Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)
A manuscript is seen at the library of Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)
A monk uses a mallet and plank to summon monks and visitors to the afternoon prayers at the Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)

“The Sultans’ firmans we saw in the tower … and the Ottoman state’s court decisions show that the monks’ small democracy was able to gain the respect of all conquering powers,” Nikopoulos said. “And that is because Mount Athos was seen as a cradle of peace, culture … where peoples and civilizations coexisted peacefully.”

Nikopoulos said that one of the first actions of Sultan Murad II, the Ottoman ruler who conquered Thessaloniki – the closest city to Mount Athos – was to draw up a legal document in 1430 protecting the community.

“That says a lot. The Ottoman sultan himself ensured that the administrative system of Mount Athos was preserved and safeguarded,” he said.

Even before that, Niehoff-Panagiotidis added, a sultan issued a mandate laying down strict punishment for intruders after a band of marauding soldiers engaged in minor thieving from one of the monasteries.

Male visitors eat dinner at Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)
Skulls of monks darting to the 1400s are laid out on shelves in an ossuary at the Pantokrator Monastery, in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)
A monk attends the afternoon prayers at the Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)
Monks exit from the church after the afternoon prayers at the Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)

“It’s strange that the sultans kept Mount Athos, the last remnant of Byzantium, semi-independent and didn’t touch it,” he said. “They didn’t even keep troops here. At the very most they would have a local representative who probably stayed at (the community’s administrative center, Karyes) and sipped tea.”

Another unexpected revelation, Niehoff-Panagiotidis said, was that for roughly the first two centuries of Ottoman rule no effort was made to impose Islamic law on Mount Athos or nearby parts of northern Greece.

“Mount Athos was something like a continuation of Byzantium,” he said.

The community was first granted self-governance through a decree by Byzantine Emperor Basil II, in 883 A.D. Throughout its history, women have been forbidden from entering, a ban that still stands. This rule is called “avaton” and the researchers believe that it concerns every form of external administrative or secular intervention that could affect Mount Athos.

Male visitors talk as the sun rises from the sea at the Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 14, 2022. (AP Photo)
A monk using a mallet and plank to summon monks and visitors to the afternoon prayers, pauses at the Pantokrator Monastery in the Mount Athos, northern Greece, Oct. 13, 2022. (AP Photo)

Father Theophilos, a Pantokrator monk who is helping with the research, said the documents show the far-flung influence of Mount Athos.

“Their study also illuminates examples of how people can live with each other, principles that are common to all humanity, the seeds of human rights and respect for them, democracy and the principles of social coexistence,” he told AP.

The research project is expected to continue for several months, even years.

“What could emerge in the long term I’ll be able to say when we have catalogued and digitized all the documents,” Niehoff-Panagiotidis said. “Right now, nobody knows what’s hidden here. Perhaps, even older documents.”

source https://www.dailysabah.com/life/history/oldest-manuscripts-reveal-ottoman-tolerance-on-greek-monastery

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