Regarding the Permissibility of Music

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Some scholars and many zealous laity argue that there is a consensus among lawyers regarding the ban on listening to music with musical instruments. Some imams say an opinion that allows this strange (شاذ) opinion, which is rejected as unfounded by all prominent scholars and schools of thought. If so, then how many imams and scholars allow you to use this new phenomenon of Islamic music?


بسم الله والحمد لله والصلاة و سلام على رسول الله

In the name of Allah, and all glory and gratitude is Allah, and He can send peace and blessings to the Prophet Muhammad

It is quite true that – historically – a widespread (جمهور) opinion in Islamic jurisprudence regarding the use and listening to musical instruments is a ban (حرام). This is the official opinion of the four schools of thought, although various scholars from different schools believed that they did not like it (مكروه), and many others considered it acceptable with the condition that the song was not immoral. It is not true that there is a consensus on this issue or that an opinion on admissibility is a strange opinion, which is a divergence from the clear teachings of the Quran and Sunnah. In today's world, the number of famous scholars is growing, allowing you to listen to instruments that do not accompany sinful poetry (song).

We will – with divine support – show that this question is a matter of legitimate differences based on scientific education and interpretation (اجتهاد). Unfortunately, one of the main reasons for this research is that in fact there is a movement of modern scientists to dismiss, suppress or distort the opinion of admissibility!

It is alleged that no eminent scholars have decided on the admissibility of musical instruments, except Yusuf al-Qaradawi, who is supposed to rely solely on the strange opinion of Imam Ibn Hazma. This is not true. There are hundreds, I dare say thousands, of scientists who have adhered to the permissibility of listening to music until the song is morally vertical. Below are some of the most famous scientists (mujtahideen) in our history, which not only considered it valid, but in some cases wrote a whole study to prove it!

  • Abdullah bin Jafar bin Abi Talib (al-Akd al-Fared 6/12)
  • Shilling Abu Hamed al-Ghazali (v. 6, p. 1150 al-Ihyaa)
  • Imam al-Shawkani (Ibtal da & wa al-Ijmaa ala Mutlak al-Sama)
  • Imam ibn Hazm (Al-Muhallah)
  • Imam Abdul-Ghani al-Nablusi (Idahat al-Dalalaat, ama al-alaat)
  • Sultan al-Ulema al-Iz ibn Abdul-Salam (Rislat al-Sama)
  • Al-Qadi Ibn Qutayb al-Daynur (al-Ruhsah-fal-sama)
  • Imam Ibn Tahir al-Qaisirana (p. 31 al-Sama)
  • Imam al-Tahabi (al-Ruhsah fil-Gin wa al-Turb)
  • Abu Talib al-Makki (Qoot al-Quloob)
  • al-Qadi ibn al-Arabi al-Makki (Ahkam al-Quran vol. 3, p. 1494)
  • Shilling Yusuf al-Majishun prominent Muhaddit (No. 3399 ibn al-Hutaim)
  • Ibn Dakik al-Id (Iktinas al-Savani)
  • Shilling Jad Ali Jad Al-Haq (fatawah # 3280)
  • Shilling Mahmoud al-Shaltut (p. 375 fatawaah)

May God fill them with all of His mercy!

Some scholars are trying to say that many of these scholars simply said that it was allowed to listen to cappella songs, and some of their works really make this point apart from the permissibility of using musical instruments. Each of these links refers to the permissibility view for songs with instruments.

Below are the legal evidence used to illustrate the prohibition and the response of scientists who are not convinced of the evidence or who see the evidence differently:

From the Quran: There are two verses that are interpreted as justifying the prohibition, supporting a clearer Hadith (narration) on the subject. They are as follows:

"There are people who buy distracting / entertaining speech without knowledge, to lead people astray from the path of God … "(Quran 31: 6)

Only a couple of the dozens of exegetes thought that this had something to do with musical instruments.

Many exegetes occupied a more general way of a general meaning in the absence of a genuine text and said that it refers to a preference or sympathy for listening to a false speech, distracting it from Islam.

The vast majority of exegents said that it was a song Jahiliyas (pre-Islamic days). Imam al-Qurtubi said that this and other verses are those that scientists use as evidence for unloved (مكروه) character singing. Imam al-Qurtubi also tells that this verse was revealed in the life of the Prophet when a person bought a slave known for singing Islamic songs. Jahiliyas (ignorance).

Many exegesis noted weak Hadith which is amplified by the aforementioned indirect cause of revelation. Weak Hadith states:

".لا يحل بيع المغنيات ولا شراؤهن وثمنهن حرام"

"It is forbidden to buy or sell female singers JahiliyasThe price of such a transaction is prohibited. "

The evidence of the ban on Islamic music in this verse is very weak. Any true scholar undoubtedly acknowledges that the verse itself is not proof; rather, it supports a couple Hadith and the position of many Companions.

Verse two

"(God speaks to Satan) Incite the one who you can among them with your voice …" (Quran 17:64)

Some scholars from early generations have said that this is literal, and this means that Satan whispers to us to follow him and not obey God, as mentioned in the famous verse in Sura Ibrahim: “I did not have power over you, except that I called you and you have followed me … "(Quran 14:22). Great imam tafsir (exegesis) al-Tabari took a position, like his style, which is common, and since there is no clear evidence of what is meant by “your voice,” then this is taken literally and in general.

Many other scholars have noted that the verse speaks of playing (لعب) and wasting time (لهو). Once again, no true scholar will affirm that this verse itself can be used to prohibit listening to music.

Let's see what evidence we can find in the Sunnah (the tradition of the Prophet):

There is Hadith mentioned as an attachment (معل) to a section in the authentic collection of Bukhari under the heading of drinks No. 5590, named by those who seek permission to drink alcohol, calling it by another name. Imam al-Bukhari did not put the Hadith as an official Hadith in his original collection. According to Imam al-Muhallab, the reason was that Hisham was not sure of the name of the satellite (al-Ibtal al-Shoukani, p. 9). Hadith coming:

"… ليكونن من أمتي أقوام, يستحلون الحر والحرير, والخمر والمعازف"

"There will be a group of people from my nation who will think that silk, alcohol and musical instruments are allowed …"

Some Hadith scientists have found a linked chain for this type Hadith, The most famous book of Ibn Hajra in his book "The Closing of Investments" (تغليق التعليق). There are scholars who opposed his claims, but even if we agreed with his conclusions about the connection between al-Bukhari and Hisham bin Ammar, there is still a problem with Hisham as a narrator among some prominent Hadith scientists.

There are many issues related to this. HadithAccording to Imam al-Tahabi in his famous 4-volume book, Mizan al-Itidal, in which all the weak storytellers that he could collect were involved. Imam al-Tahabi mentions that Hisham bin Ammar used to be a faithful storyteller, then he changed. He told 400 hoursadiths which have no reason. Previously, he did not tell if someone did not pay him. He was accused of changing the text. Imam Ahmad said he is foolish. Some said that he said that there are words from Gabriel and Muhammad in the Quran and that speech is created.

Ibn Hajjar acknowledges this, but justifies his ruling Hadith through another story in which there is someone else telling about it besides Hisham. what Hadith changes in the text, but mentions people who consider musical instruments valid (which, linguistically and logically, does not necessarily mean that it is forbidden). The next problem with this Hadith which is not resolved in the book of Ibn Hajjar, is a narrator named Atia Bin Kai.

Atyai bin Qais was a righteous man who Hadith Scientists agreed with his character and honesty (عدالة), but among some scientists there is a problem with his accuracy of memory and narration (ضبط). Some famous scientists Hadith call him trustworthy (ثقة) only because he is a well-known, humane man, and the question of his accuracy with Hadith Unknown (مجهول). Some of them said that it is acceptable (far from Sahih ) to be careful of the story from him. This is stated in Hadith the scientist Abu Hatem al-Razi in his book al-Jar wa al-Ta & # 39; deel 2/37 and Abu Bakr al-Bazzaar in his book Kashf al-Astar 1/106.

This is the best evidence put forward by proponents of the prohibition in accordance with them. Other Hadith rely on it. For example:

".ليكونن في هذه الأمة خسف, وقذف, ومسخ, وذلك إذا شربوا الخمور, واتخذوا القينات, وضربوا بالماا"

“In this nation, defamation will also be dishonored when they drink alcohol and listen to music (literally female singers beating on instruments)” (al-Suyooti al-Sagheer 7720)

Even a layperson can see that the linguistic connotation in no way forbids listening to music, but rather a ban on the "party" scene. There are many others Hadith like this one, which shows that the combination of alcohol and music is a shameful and immoral scene. According to this fact, there is a consensus among scientists. Even in the narration of another Hadith As the most convincing evidence, there are variations that focus on drinking alcohol under a different name and do not even mention musical instruments. Thus, the exact classification of Imam Bukhari.

Many people believe that, although we see problems in the evidence used to ban music, it’s still the official opinion of four main schools of thought, and this shows that it was clear to those scientists who know better than us. The assumption here is that every scientist from different schools of thought over the centuries has been mujtahid and was willing to challenge the opinions and evidence of his own school. It was simply not the way Dr. Mana al-Qattan relates in his book on the history of legislation in Islamic history. He explains the well-known unfortunate part of our history, known as closing the door to legal reasoning (إغلاق باب الاجتهاد). For nearly eight centuries, most scholars have been memorized and issued most of the rulings of Islamic law. For various reasons, they were uncomfortable when people changed or disputed popular rulings. Some of those who disagreed with this methodology, such as Ibn Taymiyah (ra) or al-Suyoto (ra), were considered dissidents. There is also some historical evidence that this ruling banning all music was greatly advanced by the end of the Abbasi Caliphate due to widespread immorality with music and booze, since many of Hadith indicate. In my studies, in which a whole book is really required, there is something more than it seems against the background of the prevalence of opinion forbidding all instrumental music.

Evidence for resolving good, moral-resistant music:

  1. There is a false claim that all associates have banned it. Abdullah bin al-Zubayr used women to play the guitar (lute) and sang in his presence. (Idahaat al-Dalalat al-Nablusi 96)
  2. There is no disagreement about Ibrahim bin Sa '# q; d bin Abdul Rahman bin Alf listening to songs with guitars (al-Sama Ibn Tahir 63)
  3. Jews have always attributed music to the Prophet David. "alahi assalatu wassalam (peace and blessings be upon him). This is in the Bible: “The priests stood waiting in their appointed places along with the descendants of Levi, who wore musical instruments used to serve the Lord, which King David made to thank the Lord, because his merciful love is eternal …” (2 I Chronicles 7: 6). So next Hadith and the comments we have strong evidence of the praise of good music:

"يا أبا موسى, لقد وتيت مزمارا من مزامير آل داود"

“Abu Musa, of course, was given you a voice similar to the music of David” (Bukhari, 5048)

Many scientists want to say this Hadith just appeals to a beautiful voice. When we consider Ibn Hajar’s explanation about it Hadith he comments on another sound Hadith “I entered the house of Abu Musa, and I have not heard the cymbals, lute or flute than his voice” (al-Fat)

The clear linguistic indication here is that the Prophet speaks of musical instruments as if they were beautiful and delightful. It can not be in something forbidden. It would be similar to how he told his companion, who made a lot of money: “This is even better than capturing a caravan!”

  1. Imam al-Tahabi's posts about scholars in his book about eminent Muslims. Here are two examples:

“Ishaak al-Nadim Imam, who was a great master of many sciences. Famous for music with pure poetry … "(Siyar 11/118)

“Uliya is the sister of the commander of the faithful Harun al-Rashid” Refined poetess famous for singing and music with a pleasant voice. Modest pious women with priority… "(Siyar 10/187)

there is Hadith which prompted many scholars from the school of thought to allow the listening of the drums. Other prominent Malikis and Shafi & # 39; ees (two different schools of thought) allowed pipes, flutes and tambourines. These are all musical instruments and Islamic legal practice of analogy (قياس) allows other instruments in the absence of clear text prohibiting them.

Whatever opinion you have, you can follow. Please do not judge someone else, because they have a different opinion than you. Our scientists teach us the following principle in the fight against the law – there should be no reproaches in matters of legal disagreement.

.لا إنكار في مسائل الاختلاف

Islam has a rich tradition of knowledge, according to which divine decree has different interpretations regarding the details of the law. Only God has absolute truth.

If you prefer to listen to music, watch piety and do not listen to immoral music or do not want to be in immoral conditions. There is no doubt that much of today's music is banned by Islam, and even some Islamic music still creates bad conditions.

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